Saint Eligius, Patron Saint of Metalsmiths and Horses PDF Print
Written by Mephiston      Friday, 11 December 2009 10:29

On May 30th, 2008, Marcus Eligius Lehr was born. His middle name namesake is that of St. Eligius, the Patron Saint of Metalsmiths and Horses. Marcus’ mother has been riding horses since she was nine years old and is currently getting a degree in equine management. I received a Fine Arts Degree from Southern Illinois University and worked for two years as a professional Artist Blacksmith and now currently working on a Masters in Divinity. Lisa and I chose this Saints name as a reflection of our God given passions.  However, knowing that such a Patron Saint exists and not understanding whom Eligius was and the life that he lived does not seem enough.

The primary source of information on Eligius is the The Life of St. Eligius, 588-660. His friend and contemporary, Dado, bishop of Rouen, wrote this document and tells of the life and deeds of Eligius. However, what is missing from this document is the context of the life he lived. In other words, an exploration of important historical events in Frankish Gaul, the early Catholic Church and worldwide, the he either affected or was affected by.

Unfortunately, there is very little written about Eligius other than what was written by Dado. Generally any information that has been published is either the lasting effects that Eligius had, such as being venerated as a patron of metalsmiths in various paintings and other works used by medieval metals guilds, or simply regurgitation and or rewriting of the words of Dado. Any examples found of his interactions between him and the persons surrounding him are, again, generally constructed from Dado’s text. Recursion may be unavoidable when analyzing Frankish Merovingian Gaul and its characters when accomplishing this research. Much of what historians have used have come from the Life of St. Eligius. However, based upon the assumption that research in these areas accumulated data from other sources may indeed reveal a greater appreciation of this Saint.

In regards to studying Eligius and the seventh century is the distinct lack of writings by venerated writers. Much of what is written about Merovingian Gaul was by that of St. Gregory of Tours. Gregory who had written much about this period of time revolves around the sixth century. Additionally Saint Gregory the Great, the Roman Catholic Pope, was a contemporary of Eligius. However, in regards to Gregory the Great, primarily his writings concerned him and his contemporaries. These have very little, if nothing at all to say about the Franks, as probably it was reasoned that the Franks were already ‘Saved.’ Thus, when reading documentation of Gregory and the missionaries that he sent are written about the pagans of Germany and modern day Norway.

It must also be noted that there are a wide variety of spelling of individual names of key persons throughout this paper. Eligius is known by and or written about in a variety of methods. These are: “Eloi, Eloy. Latin: Eligius, Eulogius; Italian: Eligio, Lo; French: Eloi; German: Eligius.”[1] Additionally, the Frankish Kings that are described have a variety of spellings found throughout various sources. Chlothar is the spelling that will be used for King Chlotar II, who is also known as Clothar, Chlotar or Chlothair. Dado, the source for most all information regarding Eligius is known by a wide variety of names, both contemporarily to Eligius as through history. Dado is the name that he uses for himself throughout his Life of Eligius but also informs his readers that he is also known as Ouen. According to Catholic Online: “Ouen is also known as Owen and Audoenus.”[2] Additionally, Ian Wood and others use Audoin to reference the same individual. It is the intent for this paper to not dispute any of these spellings, but rather use just one spelling of any of these variants throughout this paper; Eligius, Dado, Chlothar and Dagobert.

The image of Eligius is found on many paintings and devotional items. Many of these works were commissioned for either the church or for various guilds that he is patron to, an example can be found with Figure 1 below. However, Dado does describe Eligius in writing of him in that he was “tall with a rosy face. He had a pretty head of hair with curly locks. His hands were honest and his fingers long. He had the face of an angel and a prudent look.”[3] Dodo additionally describes the manner of clothing and style that Eligius was used to wearing.

At first he was used to wear gold and gems on his clothes having belts composed of god and gems and elegantly jeweled purses, lines covered with red metal and golden sacs hemmed with gold and all of the most precious fabrics including all of silk. But all of this was but fleeting ostentation from the beginning and beneath he wore a hairshirt next to his flesh and, as he proceeded to perfection, he gave the ornaments for the needs of the poor.[4]

While this may not be a complete picture of what the man looked like, it does give some indication. Also, as will be seen, though he was used to wearing of fine clothing, at many times he would return home wearing nothing but his habitual hairshirt.

The events of Eligius’ life are understated within the context of history. Through his actions and relationships, he achieved much in his lifetime. Some of his actions may have only affected individuals, but much of what he has done still resonates throughout history. What hopes to be accomplished is to place Saint Eligius in context within world events, and an understanding the role that he played within them.[5]


The historical period of which Saint Eligius inhabits is of distinct transitional significance. 476 saw the end of Imperial Rome with the deposition of Romulus Augustus that would see the Western Empire broken up and ruled by ‘Barbarian Kings’. From that time to that of the Eleventh Century, the cessation of Viking Raids, is a time of transition in Europe from a Mediterranean based empire to that of individual states, which would develop into modern countries. These individual kingdoms include the various ‘Barbarian’ tribes, such as the Ostrogoths, Burgundians,Visgoths, and the Merovingian kingdom, of which St. Eligius was citizen of, the Franks.[6]

By the time of Eligius’ birth in 588, Clovis had already converted to western orthodox Christianity and thus created the Christian kingdom of the Franks.[7] “Following the urgings of his wife, and after a battlefield vision strongly reminiscent of Constantine’s own, Clovis had accepted Christianity. He had previously fallen under the influences of miracles traceable to the orthodox St. Martin of Tours. Now he underwent baptism by Bishop Remy of Rheims.” [8] This was especially important to the Western Church as  “the Roman hierarchy watched with approval the Frankish rise to pre-eminence among their Arian neighbors.”[9] For Eligius, it is not until Clovis’ grandson, Chlothar II that he would become a figure of eminence within the Frankish court.[10]

Before discussing Chlothar II, and Eligius’ involvement with him, it is appropriate to briefly discuss Eligius’ youth. Eligius was born in the village of Chatelat, approximately a mile from Limoges.[11] Dado also states that he was born and raised in this area by “free parents of an ancient Christian line.”[12] It is possible that Eligius is of Roman descent, though for certain it cannot be determined. However, while as serving as Bishop of Noyon, in a sermon extolling his parishioners to quit their pagan practices and festivals, “the crowd answered him with shameful and impudent words, threatening him: ‘Never, Roman…’”[13] It was also noted that during his youth that “with industry … [Eligius] took up whatever work suitable to his age came to his hand and completed it with wonderful aptitude.”[14] From observation of Eligius’ natural skills, his father apprenticed him to a goldsmith in Limoges known as Abbo.[15]

The apprenticeship of Eligius is not explained in any detail by Dado. Additionally, apprenticeships of this period are not well documented. However, based upon the assumption that as the medieval guild system that can be described in some detail in Life in a Medieval City and Growing up in Medieval London which detail apprenticeship practices around the thirteenth century, it is probably not that entirely different than what was accepted practice in Eligius’ day. Essentially for Eligius to be apprenticed to a Goldsmith required that he enter the ‘apprentice contract’ at a young age, and would also require his parents to be affluent, due to the high social status that is afforded to a goldsmith. Additionally, for a career as a goldsmith, it would require at least 10 years of service to the Master smith. While it is unknown as to the age of Eligius when he entered his apprenticeship, it can be deduced that when “he left his native land … and went to the soil of the Franks”[16] he was probably in his late teens or early twenties.[17]


Shortly after leaving the place of his birth and apprenticeship, Eligius became introduced to King Chlotar II, Merovingian king of Neustria and the sole ruler of the Franks from 613 till his death in 629[18] Dado states that he quickly came into the employ of the royal treasurer known as Bobo.[19] It is through employment with Bobo that “after a while, a certain cause brought him [Eligius] to the notice of King Clothar [Chlothar] of the Franks.”[20]

The rise of King Chlotar was rife with many difficulties. His father Chilperic had been assassinated at the instigation of Brunhild while Fredegund, his mother, was pregnant with him.  Queen Brunhild had dominated Frankish affairs for thirty years before Chlotar’s rise to power.[21] Chlothar and the Burgundian magnates had revolted against Brunhild, where finally she was brought before Chlothar when she was executed. In 561 Chlothar had reunited the Merovingian kingdom, for the first time since the death of this grandfather Chlothar I, of which his lands were called Neustria.[22] Neustria is the western portion of the kingdom of the Franks through the sixth, seventh and eighth centuries. This was comprised of the Seine and Loire country and regions to the north. The principle towns and or capitols were that of Soissons and Paris.[23] Soissons is the probable capitol of the Frankish kingdom of Chlothar and where Eligius was probably introduced to the king. Soissons itself is located on the Aisne River, an old Roman town and early Episcopal see. It is a strategic location, and the location where Clovis I had defeated the Roman legions in 486.[24]

Chlothar II is of special importance to the church. He “enjoyed a high reputation among churchmen, relations with whom were regulated in a wide-ranging edict, issued at the council of Paris in October 614.”[25] This particular edict was enacted as “a mixture of pious wishes for law and order … in an attempt to organize the kingdom justly.”[26] The edict had both secular and ecclesiastic law in mind. “A more significant clause of the Edict of Paris relates to the appointment of these judges, in which both bishops and magnates can clearly have some responsibility.”[27] Furthermore, the edict declared that “if the king was absent it was the bishop who should punish the unjust … this was in harmony with the Church’s own feelings … for the council of Tours in 567 urged that bishops should excommunicate oppressive judges.”[28]

Chlothar had also had a special interest in regards to monasteries in that he had “made contact with the Irish missionary and monastic reformer St. Columban and supported the monastery at Luxeuil that Columban had founded.”[29] The support for monasteries at this time is also quite significant. Dado writes, in his Life of Eligius, “Gaul was not yet crowded with monasteries and those that were there were not under the regular discipline but fermented with the ancient malice of the world.”[30] These influences, of both Chlothar and St. Columban would be seen later in Eligius’ life, with the establishment of a monastery in Limoges.[31]

At the death of King Chlothar, Dagobert succeeded him. The relationship that Chlothar had with Eligius was also shared by his successor. Dado writes that:

King Dagobert, swift, handsome and famous with no rival among any of the earlier kings of the Franks, loved him [Eligius] so much that he would often take himself out of the crowds of princes, optimates, dukes or bishops around him and seek private counsel from Eligius. And whatever Eligius requested, he would give without delay.[32]

The generosity of Dagobert alongside Eligius’ devotion to Christ would be seen in many manifestations. One of these is the establishment of a monastery at a villa in Limoges called Solignac, which was acquired through the King. The monastery at Limoges followed the Columban rule as described by Wood: Audoin’s [Dado] friends [Eligius] in fact played a major role in the spread of ‘Columbanian’ monasticism.”[33] Richard McBrian states that Eligius is in fact “the founder of three monasteries in northern France.”[34] One of these is, of course, the previously mentioned monastery, while the other two are “a domicile of virgins of Christ”[35] in Paris and “in the town of Noyon he built a monastery of handmaids of Christ.”[36] It must be noted that the first two monasteries were built prior to his becoming a priest and bishop of Noyon, the convent in Noyon was built after his appointment. Additionally, with his continual visiting of the monastery in Luxueil, established by Columban, the monasteries would probably all have followed Columban rule. Though he did spend much of his time and wealth on monasteries, he accomplished many other duties and activities to both Christ and the Frankish Kings.

Chlothar and Dagobert depended upon their bishops for their advice and support.[37] Yet, through the lifetime of both of these kings, Eligius had not yet been made bishop of Noyon. The official duty that Eligius performed for Chlothar was as royal treasurer. Dado describes the event that led to Eligius’ favor with Chlothar:

For that king wanted a seat urbanely made with gold and gems but no one could be found in his palace who could do the work as he conceived it. But when the aforesaid royal treasurer had satisfied himself of Eligius’s skill of Eligius, he began to investigate wither he might complete the work as it was planed. … Then the king most readily gave him a great weight of gold which he [Bobo] in turn gave to Eligius. Having taken it, he began the work immediately and with diligence speedily completed it. And from that which he had taken for a single piece of work he was able to make two.[38]

Chlothar’s expectation was that one chair would have been made. However, instead Eligius had made two, of which he held back one until after the king had marveled at the first one. The second chair being completely unexpected had earned Eligius even greater favor. “By the Lord’s will, his [Eligius] faith was strengthened and, stimulated by the king, he grew to the better every day.”[39]

After the death of Chlothar, Eligius’ interaction with the Frankish court did not come to an end. Rather Eligius’ role within the court had changed. Chlothar’s successor Dagobert “took Eligius into service as his chief counselor and entrusted him with many missions, both diplomatic and governmental.”[40] One of these diplomatic missions is described by Dado where the “king asked him to lead a legation to Breton lands… when he met the prince of the Bretons, he indicated reasons form making a pact and received pledges of peace.”[41] While Eligius was performing his diplomatic duties, he was also performing acts of mercy.

From both kings, Eligius was lavished with many jewels, gold and clothing. What he did with all this wealth is astonishing. Guy Halsall states that it is “surmised that the wars attending the end of the [Roman] Empire in the West greatly increased the number of slaves. … Sixth-century material suggests that the prime sources of slaves were large scale operations outside Gaul and foreign slavers.”[42] Eligius purchased an abundance of slaves with all of his wealth, and then set them all free.

Whenever he understood that slaves were to be sold he hastened with mercy and soon ransomed the captive. The sum of his captives redeemed rose from twenty and thirty to fifty and finally a hundred souls in one flock… He freed all alike, Romans, Gauls, Britons and Moors but particularly Saxons. If it should happen that the number of people for sale outweighed his means, he gave more by stripping what he had on his body from his belt and cloak to the food he needed and even his shoes so long as he could help the captives. And often it was pilgrims of Christ that he rescued.[43]

Eligius’ integrity shown through his diplomatic missions and goldsmithing garnered much wealth for himself, which he in turn purchased slaves and set them free. Furthermore, with the influence that he nurtured with the Frankish court, he was able to expand Christendom with the construction of monasteries and the repair and restoration of various churches.


After the death of king Dagobert, Eligius’ joined the priesthood. His devotion to Christ and kingdom had not gone unnoticed and was made the Bishop of Noyon. “To become a bishop in Merovingian Gaul … was to shoulder great responsibility and to wield great power. Once elected, bishops had security of tenure, and most of them occupied their Episcopal thrones until the day of their death.”[44] The appeal to become a bishop in that time could be well understood as it brought power and wealth. “Gallic bishops had control over the dioceasan income, from offerings and church estates.”[45] Frankish succession of bishops was governed with the Council of Clichy (626/7) which simply stated that the person nominated to the position should be from the same civitas or populus of which they would be overseeing. Gregory of Tours laments that clerics were not nominated to the position, but rather that it was often a member of the local aristocracy and was from a Roman senatorial family.[46] Based upon Eligius’ heritage, it is interesting to note that he was appointed to a see in which he was not from the local civitas and was not Frankish nobility.

While many bishops between the sixth and seventh centuries that were appointed were not clergy, Eligius chose the clerical profession and in 639 at the death of Dagobert, Eligius became a priest.[47] Considering the life of Eligius, as portrayed by Dado, this was probably a natural progression, rather than in anticipation to being appointed as Bishop of Noyon. Furthermore, according to Dado, both Eligius and himself:

in common council with certain other Catholic men, warned the prince and his optimates that this death dealing virus must swiftly be eliminated from the body of Christ which is the universal church. Their pious petition had its effect and they freely obtained what they had requested devoutly. Thus a single counsel was pleasing to all, accepted in the Holy Spirit and by royal order, that no one who had paid a price should be admitted to sacerdotal offices, nor those who, like rapacious wolves, profited by putting the gifts of the Holy Spirit up for sale. But only men of good reputation and irreproachable life should be chose for the pontifical offices.[48]

In 641 Eligius and Audoin [Dado] were elected as Bishops.[49] Eligius “was to preside over the church of Noyon after Acharius … Ouen who is called Dado to preside over the church of Rouen.”[50] During Eligius’ tenure as Bishop of Noyon, many occasions arose that he had to contend with, from heresy to the conversion of pagans.

Heresy had been a concern of the Roman church for many years prior to Eligius, especially concerning Arianism of which the Franks had been champion against.[51] Dado writes that during the reign of Constantine III that:

A wicked heresy which originated in eastern lands began to pullulate. The heresiarchs began wickedly to violate ecclesiastical rule and wandered teaching and preaching untrue things. They asserted that our lord and savior Jesus Christ  … never assumed true flesh from the Virgin Mary.[52]

Noted in this is that, first, Dado is probably not aware in his writing of Constantine that this particular eastern Emperor was murdered little over three months of starting his rule.[53] Second, as the Franks were aware of Arianism, and it is not described as such that the heresy encountered is either Gnosticism or the heresy that Constantine III is known to have supported, Monotheletism.[54] Dado also writes that it was pope Martin “who carefully and manfully guarded against this [heresy].”[55] However, it is described that these heretic priests were infiltrating Gaul with their heresies, and thus Eligius was required, with other bishops, to act against them.

Paganism was also the other significant religious struggle of which Eligius had to contend with. As was stated previously, Eligius was appointed to a see of which he was not part of the Civitas. “In Flanders and Antwerp, Frisians and Suevi and other barbarians coming from the seacoasts or distant lands not yet broken by the plow, received him with hostile spirits and averse minds.”[56] Paganism was a constant problem within the Frankish kingdom. There is an edict that is attributed to King Childebert that “ordered the destruction of idols and temples, and threatened with punishment those who did not comply as far as their own lands were concerned or those who tried to prevent the bishop from carrying out the edit in his diocese.”[57] In the light of this edict and the continual support of the Frankish kings, bishops “were committed to excising pagans.”[58] Isabel Morerira states that Christianity was a religious newcomer in Gaul. “The landscape they inhabited was a daily reminder of the past. Evidence of Gaul’s non-Christian and pre-Christain history marked towns, villages, and countryside alike.”[59] She further elaborates by illustrating that the ‘landscape’ was filled with various pagan examples such as ‘special groves’ or ‘roman temples.’ Even with edict of Childebert, issued around one hundred years prior to Eligius, pagan practices were still pervasive. Dado continually writes of Eligius’ preaching against pagan practices, especially during Christian festivities.


Saint Eligius, a rather unknown figure in the modern era, played an important role in Merovingian Gaul. From his somewhat humble beginnings as a goldsmith and through his integrity, humility and devotion to God, he rose to a very prominent position. What may be viewed as sheer coincidence, he was introduced to the Frankish king Chlothar where he became his treasurer and artificer. And though unexplored in the context of this paper, worked not only for the edification of the king, but also in the capacity as artisan for the restoration and beautification of various churches. Thus, as his patron was sympathetic towards the church, it allowed Eligius to work towards the expansion of Christianity.

It has also been seen that Eligius was the founder of three monasteries. What was significantly interesting in the foundation of these is that only one of them was founded for men. While Frankish women did play important parts in the politics of the Merovingian era, it is assumed that women, for the most part, were not considered as important as men. Besides founding two women’s monasteries, it has also been shown with his purchase of slaves to set them free show that he was primarily interested with the marginalized, downtrodden and unfortunate members of society.

Eligius’ died December 1, 660, and his story is that of a life lived. While he was partially reviled because of his relationships with the Merovingian kings though he was more loved. Dado describes the morning of his death where “a multitude of both sexes had gathered in the town. Queen Balthild was there with her sons and a multitude of nobles who speedily entered the town and went to the funeral course, and broke into tears weeping and wailing.”[60] Through his integrity and humility he had led a life of example in glorification to Christ.



Figure 1: A Goldsmith in His Shop, Possibly Saint Eligius. 1449. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Map of Merovingian Gaul

Figure 2: Merovingian Gaul.


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[1] Gaston Duchet-Suchaux and Michel Pastoureau, The Bible and the Saints (New York: Flammarion, 1994), 132.

[2] Catholic Online, “St. Ouen,” Catholic Online (accessed November 26, 2009).

[3] Dado, The Life of Eligius, 588-660, 1.12.

[4] Ibid., 1.12.

[5] A map of Merovingian Gaul has been added at the end of this paper to give a better illustration as to the locations of cities and territories during this time frame. See Figure 2.

[6] Ian Wood, The Merovingian Kingdoms: 450-751. (Edinburgh Gate, England: Pearson Education Limited, 1994), 1-5.

[7] Ray C. Petry, Editor. A History of Christianity: Readings in the History of the Church, Volume 1, The Early Medieval Church (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker  Book House, 1981), 180.

[8] Ibid., 180.

[9] Ibid., 180.

[10] Wood, 333-345. These pages list the genealogy of the Merovingian families.

[11] G. F. Maclear, Apostles of Mediaeval Europe ([London]: Macmillan, 1869), 78. See also Figure 2. 

[12] Dado, 1.1.

[13] Ibid., 2.20.

[14] Ibid., 1.3.

[15] Ibid., 1.3.

[16] Ibid., 1.4.

[17] Barbara Hanawalt, Growing Up in Medieval London: The Experience of Childhood in History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 131-135. Joseph Gies and Frances Gies, Life in a Medieval City. (New York: Harper & Row, 1981), 89-92.

[18] "Chlotar II," Britannica Biographies (January 2008): 1. MAS Ultra - School Edition, EBSCOhost (accessed November 20, 2009).

[19] Dado, 1.4.

[20] Ibid., 1.5.

[21] Dado describes the “The simoniac heresy cruelly pullulated in the cities and even to the borders of the Frankish kingdom and most of the time the unhappy queen Brunhild violated the Catholic faith with this contagion.” - Dado, 2.1.

[22] Edward James, The Origins of France: From Clovis to the Capetians, 500-1000, (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982).138-139.

[23] "Neustria," Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (October 2009): 1. MAS Ultra - School Edition, EBSCOhost (accessed November 20, 2009).

[24] "Soissons," Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (October 2009): 1. MAS Ultra - School Edition, EBSCOhost (accessed November 20, 2009).

[25] "Chlotar II," Britannica Biographies (January 2008): 1. MAS Ultra - School Edition, EBSCOhost (accessed November 20, 2009).

[26] James, 140.

[27] Ibid., 140.

[28] Ibid., 59.

[29] "Chlotar II." Britannica Biographies (January 2008): 1. MAS Ultra - School Edition, EBSCOhost (accessed November 20, 2009).

[30] Dado, 1.21.

[31] Columban, 543-615, was an Irish missionary monk who had an interesting relationship with the Franks. According to Richard McBrien, in his Lives of Saints, “After twelve years of ministry, Columban and his monks began to sense hostility from the local Franksih bishops, who resented their independence and the Celtic (as opposed to Roman) ways, especially regarding the dating of Easter. … Columban found himself in difficulty on yet another front. He had reproached the king of Burgundy for keeping concubines, refused to baptize his illegitimate children, and prevented his grandmother from entering his monastery at Luxeuil. … in 610 the king ordered Columban and his Irish monks to leave the country.” – Richard McBrien, The Lives of the Saints: From Mary and St. Francis of Assisi to John XXIII and Mother Teresa (New York: HarperCollins, 2001). 474-475.

[32] Dado, 1.15.

[33] Wood, 186.

[34] McBrian, 485.

[35] Dado, 1.17.

[36] Ibid., 2.5.

[37] Wood, 155.

[38] Dado. 1.5. - The royal treasurer was named Bobo. See Dado. 1.4.

[39] Ibid., 1.5.

[40] Duchet-Suchaux, 132.

[41] Dado. 1.13.

[42] Guy Halsall, Settlement and Social Organization: The Merovingian Region of Metz. (Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 42.

[43] Dado, 1.10.

[44] Lewis Thorp, trans., Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (New York: Penguin Books, 1964), 9.

[45] James, 52.

[46] Ibid., 50.

[47] Duchet-Suchaux, 132.

[48] Dado, 2.1.

[49] Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding, Late Merovingian France: History and Hagiography 640-720 (New York: Manchester University Press, 1996), 16.

[50] Dado, 2.1.; Though Noyon’s importance at the time of Eligius’ election was only significant as it was a Bishopric, it has further historic points in its history in relevance with the Church and medieval history. “In 768 at Noyon, Charlemagne was crowned king of the Franks. … The town was devastated in both World Wars, but the Cathedral of Notre Dame (12th–13th cent.) has survived. The house where John Calvin was born is now a museum.” - "Noyon," Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (October 2009): 1. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 30, 2009).

[51] "Clovis I," Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (October 2009): 1. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed December 4, 2009).

[52] Dado., 1.33.

[53] “List of Byzantine Emperors,” Wikipedia, (accessed December 4, 2009).

[54] "Monotheletism," Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (October 2009): 1. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed December 3, 2009).

[55] Dado, 1.33.

[56] Ibid., 2.3.

[57] James, 94.

[58] Isabel Moreira, Dreams, Vision, and Spiritual Authority in Merovingian Gaul (London: Cornell University Press, 2000), 111.

[59] Ibid., 113.

[60] Dado, 2.3

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